Jenis dan Fungsi Stiker

Stiker atau label banyak digunakan pada  berbagai industri,seperti :produk makanan, obat-obatan, shampo, krim kulit, pembalut wanita, popok bayi, serta  industri motor dan mobil. Beragamnya industri pengguna  stiker atau label mendorong industri label untuk dapat memenuhi tuntutan kualitas dari berbagai  jenis industri tersebut. Setiap segmen industri pengguna  stiker atau label memiliki standar kualitas yang spesifik sesuai dengan aplikasi dari label atau stiker tersebut.

Hal terpenting dari kualitas stiker adalah kemampuan material perekat atau lem yang digunakan terhadap  materialdimana stiker ditempelkan yang  disebut dengan kualitas adhesi stiker. Kualitas lem yang digunakan harus  tahan terhadap  beban mekanikal dan  tahan terhadap pengaruh lingkungan seperti kelembaban, temperatur, keasaman, alkohol ataupun produk turunan dari minyak bumi, nabati maupun hewani.

Setiap segmen industri memiliki tuntutan atau pilihan kualitas/jenis lem yang akan digunakan. Untuk industri makanan digunakan  lem yang tidak bermigrasi ke makanan dan tidak membahayakan bagi kesehatan konsumen.Sedangkan  segmen industri motor atau mobil digunakan  lem dengan  kualitas yang tahan terhadap pengaruh oli, bensin,temperatur tinggi dan kelembaban. Dua segmen industri tersebut memiliki perbedaan yang sangat  ekstrem dalam hal tuntutan kualitaslem  dan aplikasinya.

Pada umumnya stiker berfungsi untuk meningkatkan daya jual suatu produk dan sebagai  sarana informasi produk bagi konsumen. Stiker biasanya ditambahkan/ditempelkan   pada kemasan yang tidak fleksibel karena biayaproses pencetakan  pada material tersebut sangat mahal atau kualitas cetakyang dihasilkan  tidak dapat memenuhi tuntutan pihak marketing. Saat ini jumlah warna yang digunakan untuk stiker pada kemasan produk-produk FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) sudah lebih dari 5 warna plus warna khusus seperti warna emas dan perak. Penggunaan banyak warna ini dimaksudkan untuk  penunjang salah satu tujuan penggunaan stiker,yaitumeningkatkan keamanan produk dari pemalsuan. Dengan menggunakan stiker,  pemalsuan akan lebih sulit dilakukan karena material stiker dirancang sedemikian rupa sehingga sulit  dipalsukan baik dari segi kualitas  cetakan, kekuatan  lem maupun  kekuatan  material pembawanya.

Material Stiker

Pada dasarnya stiker terdiri atas tiga material berbeda,yaitu :  material pembawa, material perekat dan kertas release atau lebih dikenal dengan kertas silikon. Material pembawa adalah jenis material yang dapat dicetak dan dilapisi bahan perekat,  dapat berupa  bahan yang mempunyai porositi tinggi seperti kertas atau bahan sellulosa lain ataupun material  lain berbahan baku plastik atau metal.

Pada bahan non polar seperti plastik PE (polyethylen)dan  PP (polyprophylen) yang  paling banyak diproduksi dengan harga yang kompetitif,  harus  dilakukan perlakuan khusus untuk meningkatkan tegangan permukaannya agar dapat dicetak dan dilapisi bahan perekat, umumnya  menggunakan corona treatment yang dilakukan online sebelum proses cetak berlangsung. Sedangkan untuk material plastik lainnya seperti PET (polyethylen terephthalat), PVC (polyvinyl chlorid), dan PC (poly carbonat),  permukaannya  dapat dicetak dan dilapisi bahan perekattanpa perlakuan khusus.

Sedangkan material perekat adalah bahan yang bisa dilapiskan pada material pembawa dan dapat merekat pada material lainnya. Jenis bahan perekat yang digunakan untuk aplikasi kemasan dapat  dibedakan atas bahan pelarutnya dan proses aplikasinya. Ada bahan perekat yang berbahan pelarut air atau berbahan pelarut minyak,  ada juga bahan perekat yang harus dipanaskan dahulu sebelum proses pelapisan dilakukan yang disebut dengan lem hotmelt.

Material dasar pembuatan bahan perekat untuk stiker atau label yang banyak digunakan adalah polymer elastomer seperti acrylic dan polymer dasar seperti polystyrene. Pemilihan bahan dasar ditentukan oleh aplikasi dari label dan proses perekatannya. Salah satu hal penting pada karakteristik bahan perekat adalah gaya adhesi dan kohesi dari bahan perekat tersebut. Kedua gaya ini berbanding terbalik pada aplikasinya,  jika  daya rekat atau gaya adhesi tinggi maka gaya kohesinya akan rendah dan sebaliknya. Perbedaan ini sangat ditentukan oleh komposisi antara bahan elastomer dan polymer yang digunakan pada proses  pembuatan bahan perekat untuk stiker ataupun label.

Untuk material kertas release atau kertas silikon biasanya terdiri dari kertas dengan rentang antara 40 – 100 gsm dan material silikon dengan ketebalan antara 8 – 12 gsm. Kertas yang digunakan untuk kertas release dalam pembuatannya mengalami dua kali proses refiner untuk mendapatkan  kertas dengan pori-pori yang sangat kecil dengan tujuan  agar material silikon tidak banyak terbuang kedalam pori-pori kertas karena harganya  sangat mahal. Kertas dengan grammatur lebih tinggi,seperti 100 gram,biasanya digunakan untuk stiker dengan ukuran besar.Hal ini dimaksudkan agar  stiker tidak mudah melipat pada proses aplikasi seperti penempelan stiker pada sepeda motor yang dilakukan secara manual. Sedangkan kertas silikon dengan grammatur rendah biasanya digunakan untuk aplikasi stiker minuman botol, pembalut wanita dan lain-lain.

Ada dua jenis kertas release dipasaran yaitu kertas release berwarna kuning dan berwarna putih dengan  ketebalan material silikon ditentukan dari kekuatan daya rekat material stiker yang akan diproduksi. Semakin tinggi nilai adhesi atau daya rekatnya maka semakin tebal silikon yang diperlukan agar mudah lepas pada saat aplikasi. Material silikon yang ada dipasaran saat ini terbuat dari dua jenis bahan pelarut yaitu waterbase system dan solventbase system. Silikon yang berbahan pelarut minyak cenderungberwarna  kekuningan sedangkan silikon berbahan pelarut air tidak berwarna.

Proses pencetakan  stiker atau label umumnya  dilakukan dengan  web flexokecil atau mesin sablon dan  material yang digunakan adalah roll to roll dengan lebar tidak lebih dari 1000 mm.

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