Kesalahan Yang Sering Dilakukan Pengusaha Pemula Dalam Memulai Bisnis

Bisnis kecil yang baru saja Anda buka membawa banyak harapan untuk meraih kesuksesan. Kata “kegagalan“ barangkali hanya terlintas sekali dua kali. Lagipula siapa, sih, yang mendambakan kegagalan? Padahal menghitung risiko kegagalan jauh lebih aman daripada tidak sama sekali. Hitung-hitung Anda mempunyai benteng pertahanan yang lebih kuat agar bisnis tak mundah runtuh.

Selain bersikap tak mau tahu tentang risiko kegagalan, apa saja, sih, yang membuat para wirausahawan gagal di bisnisnya? Berikut di antaranya.

Memulai dengan alasan keliru
Coba tanya diri sendiri, apa alasan Anda memulai bisnis sendiri? Menginginkan uang yang lebih banyak daripada penghasilan yang didapatkan saat ini? Waktu luang dengan keluarga yang lebih banyak ketimbang bekerja di perusahaan orang lain? Atau, Anda bosan diperintah? Jika Anda mengangguk pertanda setuju dengan alasan-alasan tadi, maka pikirkan kembali.

Anda mempunyai kesempatan yang lebih bagus untuk sukses di bisnis baru jika:
* Anda mempunyai passion atau kecintaan akan sesuatu yang Anda lakukan. Passion  ini akan menggiring Anda untuk memiliki kemauan tingkat tinggi, kesabaran, dan perilaku yang positif.
* Kesuksesan juga akan terjadi ketika Anda percaya bahwa produk atau jasa yang ditawarkan perusahaan Anda memang mempunyai peluang di pasarnya. Tentunya keyakinan ini didasarkan pada riset yang dilakukan secara profesional, bukan asumsi belaka.
* Fit secara fisik dan mental, sehingga Anda siap menyambut tantangan apapun yang menghampiri di masa depan.
* Ketika Anda gagal, Anda tak lantas mengibarkan bendera putih. Anda justru mencari tahu di mana letak kesalahannya, dan berupaya memperbaikinya.
* Anda bisa mengambil keputusan di saat yang genting, termasuk mengenal usaha Anda luar. Jadi jika sewaktu-waktu staf yang dibutuhkan sedang berhalangan, Anda tak kehilangan kendali. Malah, Anda bisa mengambil alih.

Buruknya manajemen
Kegagalan berbisnis yang dialami para pemula biasanya disebabkan buruknya manajemen. Para wirausahawan yang masih hijau memang cenderung meraba-raba area manajemen bisnis. Sebut saja rencana bisnis, keuangan, pembelian, penjualan, produksi, hingga perekrutan karyawan. Padahal hal-hal ini sangat diperlukan untuk membangun sebuah usaha menjadi lebih matang. Pengetahuan tentang manajemen juga dibutuhkan untuk menghindarkan Anda dari penipuan.

Untuk mengejar ketinggalan ini, Anda memang harus belajar dari nol. Mengais ilmu dari berbagai pelatihan manajemen bisnis yang kredibel atau bertukar pendapat dengan teman yang sudah lebih dulu terjun ke dunia wirausaha, bisa Anda lakukan.

Hal lain yang harus Anda ingat adalah manajemen juga berarti mengatur diri sendiri menjadi pemimpin yang sukses. Ia harus bisa menciptakan suasana kerja yang kondusif sehingga pegawainya pun semangat bekerja. Pemimpin juga diwajibkan mampu berpikir strategis, berani menghadapi perubahan, dan mencari peluang baru yang lebih menguntungkan.

Modal yang kuat

Kesalahan terfatal pada wirausahawan pemula adalah modal yang tidak mencukupi. Seorang pemilik perusahaan, meski kecil, harus bisa menghitung berapa banyak uang yang dibutuhkan untuk memulai dan menghidupi usahanya, selama belum menghasilkan keuntungan yang terasa. Jadi, jangan dulu berkhayal akan mendapatkan keuntungan yang fantastis jika Anda baru memulai sebuah usaha.

Memilih lokasi
Kalimat bijak yang mengatakan bahwa lokasi menentukan prestasi memang benar adanya. Jika Anda mendirikan toko di lokasi yang strategis, meski banyak pesaing, namun setidaknya Anda masih bisa bertahan. Lain halnya dengan lokasi yang buruk, bisa-bisa mimpi menjadi wirausahawan gagal di awal jalan.

Nah, apa saja yang perlu diperhitungkan ketika memilih lokasi usaha?
* Pastikan pelanggan tak terhambat lalu lintas yang padat, mudah diakses, disertai area parkir, dan lampu jalan yang memadai.
* Pastikan kompetitor di sekeliling lokasi tak terlalu banyak sehingga peluang Anda masih terbuka lebar.
* Pastikan gedung atau ruangan yang disewa terjamin keamanannya.
* Carilah lokasi usaha yang memang mempunyai peluang pasar yang bagus. Anda bisa mengetahuinya dengan melakukan riset terhadap calon pelanggan yang berada di sana.

Kurang terencana
Semua orang yang sukses membangun usahanya dari nol pasti paham betul bahwa perencanaan matang dan kerja keras memegang peranan penting. Selain harus memperhitungkan segala kendala, perencanaan juga harus dibuat realistis, akurat, terkini, dan memperhitungkan target di masa depan.

Anda juga harus mencari tahu bagaimana cara mempromosikan barang atau jasa yang dijual perusahaan kecil Anda. Salah satu metode paling sederhana namun teruji adalah membuat business plan  yang tersusun rapi.

Buru-buru ekspansi
Suatu hari tanpa diduga, usaha melesat sukses dan Anda memutuskan untuk meningkatkan produksi barang. Di saat yang sama, Anda lupa memperhitungkan kemampuan produksi. Sehingga pada akhirnya Anda kewalahan dan kehilangan pelanggan setia. Jadi, jika memang belum mampu untuk melakukan ekspansi, bersabar saja dulu. Karena bagaimanapun perkembangan usaha yang lambat tapi fokus lebih baik daripada terburu-buru tanpa kepastian.

Absen di dunia maya
Zaman sekarang masih malas untuk mempunyai situs atau akun jejaring sosial usaha Anda? Rasanya Anda harus segera mengubah pemikiran sempit ini. Apalagi pengguna internet semakin banyak. Malah online shopping makin digemari karena kepraktisannya. Mala, posisikan situs dan akun jejaring sosial adalah toko Anda di dunia maya.Luangkan waktu dan sisihkan biaya untuk membuat situs usaha Anda yang representatif. Sehingga siapapun di belahan dunia ini bisa mengetahui produk yang Anda jual. Peluang untuk mendapatkan penghasilan tambahan dari situs yang dimiliki juga bukan isapan jempol semata. Iklan-iklan mungil di situs juga bisa memberi penghasilan yang tak sedikit bagi pemilik situs. Aktifkan juga jejaring sosial Anda dan sesuai fungsinya, gunakan untuk berinteraksi para anggota laman Anda. Jangan ragu untuk memperbanyak promosi produk Anda di dunia maya.

Mengenal kompetitor
Di tengah banyaknya pesaing, langkah-langkah berikut harus Anda lakukan agar tak tergerus kompetisi. Pertama, menjadi pembeli untuk mengetahui keinginan pembeli. Caranya mudah, intip saja “toko sebelah” yang merupakan pesaing Anda. Dengan melakukan ini, setidaknya Anda tahu bagaimana cara para pesaing memasarkan produknya, harga yang dipasang, melayani pelanggan, sampai trik promosinya. Bukan untuk ditiru, ya! Justru Anda harus mencari celah lain agar toko Anda berbeda dan lebih menarik meski barang jualannya sama. Eksekusi yang matang dan berkonsep sudah pasti membuat orang-orang lebih tertarik.

Berjualan tak cukup jalan di tempat. Sesekali cobalah ikuti bazar. Pilihlah bazar dengan lokasi strategis yang sudah pasti dikunjungi banyak pengunjung. Bazar juga tak hanya berjualan, di event ini Anda bisa mengumpulkan jaringan yang lebih kuat sembari (lagi-lagi) melihat bagaimana para pesaing berjualan. Bukan tak mungkin, Anda menjadi lebih termotivasi untuk melakukan gebrakan-gebrakan bisnis yang baru, kan? Selain itu, rajin-rajinlah mengadakan promosi untuk menggaet pelanggan baru dan menyenangkan pelanggan lama. Misalnya, cukup dengan mengunggah foto pelanggan memakai baju muslim dari toko Anda di situs jejaring sosial, Si Pelanggan mendapatkan voucher diskon

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