Membuat Produk Dahulu Atau Menentukan Sasaran Pasar?

Suatu usaha/ bisnis tidak hanya dimulai dengan mempersiapkan modal dan tempat, tetapi juga ada bagian lain yang tidak kalah pentingnya untuk keberlangsungan bisnis yang akan digeluti, yaitu menentukan sasaran pasar. Pembuatan konsep bisnis yang terpadu memungkinkan pelaku usaha untuk menemukan arah yang tepat. Seperti yang telah diciptakan oleh Alex Osterwalder dalam websitenya  alexosterwalder.com, konsep yang dimaksud mesti diciptakan dalam kanvas model bisnis yang terdiri dari 9 blok yang terkait satu sama lainnya meliputi:

  1. Customer segments
  2. Value proposition
  3. Channel
  4. Customer Relationships
  5. Revenue Streams
  6. Key Resources
  7. Key Activities
  8. Key Partnerships
  9. Cost Structure

Dari kesembilan blok ini yang akan kita bahas yaitu Customer Segments dan Value Proposition. Model bisnis ini tampak diawali dengan dua blok utama tersebut. Yang menjadi pertanyaan apakah customer segments mutlak berada di posisi paling atas dan apakah sah-sah saja jika pelaku bisnis memikirkan terlebih dahulu terhadap value proposition? Yang dimaksud dengan value proposition adalah instrumen seperti barang atau jasa yang dijadikan sebagai suatu nilai yang akan ditawarkan kepada sasaran pasar (customer segments). Customer segments itu sendiri merupakan target ke mana atau kepada siapa barang atau jasa itu akan diminati dan dibeli.

Oleh karena  itulah, value proposition harus memiliki kecenderungan keunikan nilai antarproduk/ jasa. Dalam kata lain, suatu produk/ jasa harus mempunyai nilai yang unik dari produk/ jasa lainnya agar sesuai dengan yang diharapkan atau dibutuhkan oleh customer segments.

Ada banyak pembagian value propositions menurut Ales Osterwalder dan berikut ini beberapa di antaranya:

1. Newness
Instrumen yang senantiasa baru. Biasanya mengedepankan inovasi produk/ jasa dan mencari segmen menengah ke atas.

2. Performance
Mengutamakan kinerja atau prestasi yang unggul dari suatu produk/ jasa yang ditawarkan.

3. Customization
Memberi kesempatan kepada customer segments agar bisa memesan produk/ jasa sesuai dengan yang diinginkan atau diperlukan. Istilah produk/ jasa ini adalah tailor made. Nilai yang ditawarkan ini biasanya memiliki layanan yang spesifik dengan harga (baca: biaya) yang cukup tinggi.

4. Price
Pembagian harga sesuai dengan lapisan sasaran pasar. Pertimbangan harga yang murah masih menjadi nilai dengan ekspektasi yang besar bagi sasaran pasar kelas menengah ke bawah.

5. Accessibility
Kehadiran bisnis dan instrumen yang ditawarkan agar dapat dengan mudah diakses oleh sasaran pasar. Dengan demikian bisnis kita bisa ditemukan di mana-mana.

6. Convenience
Menciptakan kenyamanan atas instrumen yang ditawarkan dan harus bisa mengakomodasi gaya hidup atau kebutuhan sasaran pasar yang sebelumnya tidak pernah terpenuhi.

Value proposition ini harus ditetapkan secara konsisten untuk menunjukkan ke arah mana sesungguhnya bisnis yang Anda jalankan. Meskipun demikian tidak ada pula larangan bagi pengusaha untuk mengubah jenis value proposition ini jika memang dalam situasi yang dapat mengancam keberlangsungan usaha. Ambil contoh bisnis software akuntansi tailor made(customization) kurang diminati oleh sasaran pasar sehingga harus diubah menjadi software paket yang sudah jadi (convenience/ price).

Setelah value proposition ditentukan, barulah menentukan sasaran pasar bisnis Anda. Sasaran pasar ini dapat berupa pengguna akhir atau pengguna yang perlu proses lanjutan. Pembagian sasaran pasar ini dapat dibedakan beberapa di antaranya sebagai berikut:

1. Business to Business (B2B)
Sasaran ini adalah bisnis lainnya. Contoh konkretnya adalah bisnis pembuatan dan pengolahan bahan mentah menjadi barang jadi misalnya bisnis ternak sapi perah sasarannya adalah produsen susu kemasan.

2. Business to Customer (B2C)
Sasaran ini adalah pengguna akhir. Contohnya bisnis restoran sasarannya adalah tamu restoran atau bisnis software akuntansi sasarannya adalah staf akuntansi, dsb. B2C biasanya langsung berhadapan dengan pelanggan.

Jadi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa untuk memulai bisnis Anda dapat memulai dengan menetapkan jenis produk/ jasa yang kelak akan Anda jual kemudian barulah mencari sasaran yang cocok sebagai konsumen produk/ jasa Anda atau sebaliknya. Apapun itu, pastikan antara produk/ jasa dan customer harus memiliki kaitan yang erat baik dari sisi fungsi, harga, kemudahan, dan kenyamanannya.

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